One of the grandest suburban Moscow estates is now located within the city limits, in New Moscow. From the late 18th century to the late 19th century, the estate was owned by the princely family of Vyazemsky, and after that it passed into the hands of Count Sheremetev family.

The large stately Neoclassical house was built in 1807 on the shore of the pond. Andrey Vyazemsky had invited his son-in-law Nikolay Karamzin to settle at Ostafyevo. In April 1807, after his father's death, the estate passed on to Pyotr Vyazemsky, who often hosted such guests as Alexander Pushkin, Vasily Zhukovsky, Konstantin Batyushkov, Denis Davydov, Alexander Griboyedov, Nikolai Gogol, and Adam Mickiewicz.

By the end of the 19th century, the Vyazemsky family knew very well that their estate is an important historical place, and the rooms of Pushkin and Karamzin were kept exactly as the famous guests had seen them. Count Sergei Sheremetev, who became the estate's next owner, also took care of the house's cultural heritage, and even installed several monuments to the members of the Vyazemsky family, as well as to Pushkin and Zhukovsky, around the house.

This idyll came to an abrupt end with the revolution of 1917. The estate was nationalized, the Soviet authorities had opened a museum, which was headed by the great-grandson of poet Pyotr Vyazemsky, Pavel Sheremetev. Later, there was a Young Pioneers' camp, and a sanatorium for Soviet bureaucrats, and in the 1980s, the estate was once again given a status of the museum.