Spasskaya Tower

Nikolai Galkin/TASS
One of the principal landmarks of the Red Square is the 71-metre (233-feet) Spasskaya Tower. It is famous for kuranty (from French courant) – the chiming clock. Italian architect Pietro Antonio Solari, who also worked on the modern-day Kremlin, built the tower in 1491. The pavilion top and the first clock were added in the first quarter of the 17th century. The current chiming clock with a six-metre (20-feet) clock-face was installed between the tower's eighth and ninth tiers in 1851-1852. The musical repertoire of the chiming clock went through several iterations, from the Ach, du lieber Augustin (during the early days of Catherine the Great's rule) to How Glorious Our Lord at Zion (during the rule of Nicholas II), from L'Internationale (in the first years of the Soviet Russia and Vladimir Lenin's rule) to the Glory from Glinka's opera A Life for the Tsar (under first Russian President Boris Yeltsin). Today the musical mechanism of the clock performs the national anthem of the Russian Federation. In 2014 the Spassky Gate that lead to the Kremlin was opened to the public.